Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that “the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and acknowledges that “much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be required to keep the increase in the global average temperature below 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.” [25] [Clarification required] If the United States joined the agreement, it would be technically necessary to implement an NDC within 30 days. Many countries have stated in their INDCs that they intend to use some form of international emissions trading scheme to implement their contributions. In order to ensure the environmental integrity of these transactions, the agreement requires the parties to respect accounting practices and to avoid double counting of “mitigation results transferred internationally.” In addition, the agreement will create a new mechanism that would help contain and support sustainable development and could produce or certify negotiable emission units according to its design. We have an agreement and we now have a chance to achieve our goal. We cannot say that without an agreement. The Paris Agreement will allow us to reach the target of 2 degrees Celsius or less. We did not expect to leave Paris with commitments to achieve this goal, but with a process that will lead us to it. And that is what the agreement provides. To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national climate change plans (national fixed contributions, NDC).

These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. Since the Paris Agreement is expected to apply after 2020, the first formal inventory of the agreement will not be carried out until 2023. However, as part of a decision attached to the agreement, the parties decided to restart the five-year cycle with a “facilitation dialogue” on collective progress in 2018 and the presentation of the NDC by 2030 to 2020.