But the legal basis for the indictment of some Nazis was misleading. Technically, the Kellogg-Briand Pact had not made war a crime; it only lifted the legal immunity granted to it under the Demgrous regime. Under international law, states, not individuals, were responsible for war crimes. To prosecute the accused in Nuremberg, the Allies and their lawyers had to transform the pact into a penal code that generated individuals responsible for illegal acts of war. It is the most important legacy of Nuremberg today. This is what it allowed to prosecute before an international tribunal in The Hague more than one hundred and fifty people for war crimes committed during the fighting in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s. The Levinson salmon was an unlikely revolutionary. A successful business lawyer in Chicago, he has shown little interest in international affairs for most of his career. But when the First World War broke out in 1914, futility irritated him. He began to develop a simple but profound idea: the way to end the war was to make it illegal.

“The real disease of the world is the legality and availability of war,” he wrote in August 1917. “We should not, as now, have laws of war, but laws against war; just as there are no laws of murder or poisoning, but laws against them. When it banned war, the Kellogg Briand Pact changed almost all the rules that states had followed for centuries. The most important thing is that countries could no longer establish righteousness, justice or title by brachial force. Because war was now illegal, except in cases of self-defense, states have lost the right to conquer. Yes, an aggressor could still take a city by force, but that would no longer mean that it would legally become the city of the aggressor. The veters argued that, since the old system was based on the legality of war, the way to replace it was to make war illegal. Hathaway and Shapiro tell us that Salmon Levinson used the duel analogy. There was a lot of effort to change the codes of the duel and humanize it, but people still fought in a duel. Eventually, the duel was forbidden, which meant that killing a person in a duel was a murder and that the duel stopped.