All parties to the GPA, with the exception of Canada, provide access to their purchases to utilities. However, the scope is not uniform and the degree of openness of supply to foreign competition varies from country to country and the scope is subject to specific or generalized exceptions. In 2016, several commentators suggested that after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union (EU), the UK would have to renegotiate to become a member of the GPA itself, given that the UK`s membership is being born because of its EU membership. [7] Under the EEA agreement, the accession of EU member states must apply for membership of the EEA agreement (Article 128) under conditions subject to the agreement. Public procurement rules ensure that public funds are used properly when public bodies make purchases in the private sector. In October 2006, the European Commission published a paper entitled “Global Competition in the World” [40], which sets out the EU`s external agenda to improve its competitiveness in the global economy. As a central element of this new trade framework, a new generation of free trade agreements aims to complement the EU`s strong commitment to the multilateral trading system by focusing on areas not currently covered by WTO multilateral rules, including public procurement. The main economic criteria of the new generation of free trade agreements are the market potential (economic size and growth) and the level of protection against EU export interests (tariffs and non-tariff barriers). The EU also takes into account the negotiations of potential partners with EU competitors and the likely effects on EU markets and economies. In essence, these next-generation free trade agreements aim for comprehensive and ambitious coverage, aimed at achieving the highest possible level of trade liberalization, while strengthening sustainable development and taking into account the development needs of our trading partners. Negotiations between the EU and Iraq for the adoption of a trade and cooperation agreement began in November 2006.

The EU and Iraq are working to establish a WTO-compatible regime, which will also promote trade with Iraq and investment in Iraq. The VPA also contains a very comprehensive chapter on public procurement, based on GPA rules, which will lead to substantial reciprocal opening of EU and Iraqi public procurement, including public procurement. At the 2004 EU-LAC Summit, the EU and the Central American region agreed to negotiate a new AA and these negotiations began in 2007. The commercial part of the agreement includes a chapter on public procurement, with provisions on rules, including transparency and market access. The acquisition of public services is included. The last round of negotiations concluded in June 2009 in Brussels, but after the uncertain political situation in Honduras, negotiations were suspended. The ASA and the Fa for Trade were signed on April 29, 2008. However, the Council decided that the implementation of the FA and the ratification of the ASA should be conditional on the unanimous recognition of Serbia`s full cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The Serbian parliament ratified the agreements on 9 September 2008. During the negotiations on the public procurement chapters, the EU offers legally secure and non-discriminatory access to a large procurement market, which contributes positively to the EU`s influence in the negotiations.