In 2010, Ukraine and the EU signed an agreement defining key themes for cooperation: environmental and climate research, including earth surface observation; biomedical research; agriculture, forestry, fisheries; industrial technologies; materials science and metrology; non-nuclear energy technology; transportation; information society technologies; social research; Studies and training on science and technology policy, as well as the exchange of specialists. In March 2015, Ukraine signed an accession agreement with the EU associated with Horizon 2020, under significantly more favourable conditions than before, including the possibility for Ukraine to participate in scientific cooperation at a fraction of the initial costs. [10] However, Russia`s participation in EU science projects is lower today than in the previous EU funding period 2007-2014. EU sanctions and concerns about cooperation in technologically sensitive areas “may have led some scientists to believe that Russian partners would not be welcome in Horizon 2020 projects,” a Commission note said. Scientific and technological cooperation between the EU and Russia also involves international forums and major research infrastructures The EU`s Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, signed in mid-2014, provide for increased participation of these countries in Horizon 2020. Moldova had already signed an Association Agreement for the previous Framework Programme in 2012. [10] Cooperation in the field of research and innovation is also one of the priority areas of the EU-Russia Modernisation Partnership as a common agenda to address global economic and social challenges. Some of these datasets are highly specialized and until now only had researchers within the country where they were generated. [11] Israel has been a scientific collaborator of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility since 1999; The agreement was extended by a fourth five-year term in 2013 and, in particular, Israel`s contribution increased from 0.5% to 1.5% of the EFSF budget. [11] Participation in EU activities is not free.

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