This document contains the following information: General Security Agreement between the United Kingdom and Spain on the protection of classified information. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has published the General Security Agreement as well as a number of procedures developed to implement the provisions of this Agreement. The General Security Agreement covers the protection of classified information exchanged between the United States and the United Kingdom and provides that `[o] fficial information that has received a security classification from either of the two governments. and made available by one government of the other for the purpose of making available through government channels, a classification of. the receiving government, which provides a level of protection equal to or greater than that of the government providing the information relating to the erasure of the information. The Foreign Office also issued an exchange of letters between the then UNITED KINGDOM. Ambassador to the United States Harold Caccia and then to the United States Secretary of State Dean Rusk expressed the agreement of their respective governments on the terms of the agreement. Before the 1970s, executive agreements were unregulated and undefined. It was only after the adoption of the Case Zablocki Law in 1971 that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs outlined criteria for the identification of non-contractual international agreements. In this logic, the United States may not have published the agreements because it did not understand them as triggering the obligation to publish Article 112a at the time of their signature. The sharing agreements that underpinned the Five Eyes alliance were recalled for the first time in the British United States. Communication Intelligence Agreement of 1946, later renamed the United Kingdom-United States Communication Intelligence Agreement.

At the time we filed our complaint, the 1956 version of this agreement was the last one available to the public. In response to our dispute, the NSA issued several appendices that span from 1956 to 61 and thus update our understanding of the agreement by several years. The fact that the U.S. government has not published this agreement contributes to a long confusion as to what an international agreement is under U.S. law, its legal bases, the number and what it contains. It is also more difficult for the public to hold the government to account. As others have noted, “almost all of American international law today is made by the president, who acts alone with little oversight from Congress or the American public.” Simply put, members of the public should not have to go through lengthy FOIA processes (these disclosures took place nearly a year after our application was filed) to discover the text of agreements that support our understanding of national security and international cooperation. .

. .